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Nachricht vom Further information about the company: www. Kursdetails anzeigen. Passwort vergessen? Therefore packages of data are divided in small packages and delivered to the user, who now pays for every package of data e. GPRS made it possible to be permanently 'online' and stay as long as no data is transmitted, which causes no costs for the user.
Tschersich classifies mobile devices by three main characteristics ubiquity owner can use device everywhere , reachability permanent availability of the device and owner and localization by e. Only mobile phones and smartphones fullfill these criteria and can be defined as mobile device Heinemann, , Smartphone have different communication features. While SMS is still a growing market, SMS are becoming increasingly challenged by alternative instant messaging services e.
They are able to send text message pictures and even voice message instantly to one ore more participants. A main feature of smartphone as written before is the possibility to add or remove additional applications apps. These are little programs, which can be downloaded to the operating system from the Internet to adjust and enhance the smartphone to personal needs of the owner Krum, , They enable the user to do task like surfing websites, listen to music, to play games, to find the next retail store or to decode scanned barcodes for retrieving product information, because they are able to use all built-in technology of the smartphone like the GPS chip, camera etc.
This chapter introduces the reader to basics of the mobile environment, explains and classifies the main terms. Mobile services are a part of the broader topic of mobile business, mobile commerce and mobile marketing. The terms electronic business e-business , electronic commerce e-commerce or mobile business m-business , mobile commerce m-commerce and mobile marketing m- marketing are often used partly in exchange for one another or miss a clear distinction by many authors. In relation to the topic ofhis thesis their central aspects have to be defined.
The term electronic business as defined by Wirtz is '[ This means that the focus in e-business lies on the exchange of goods and services. E-commerce is defined as '[ This shows an agreement on the adoption of a hierarchically relationship between the two concepts. Accordingly to that e-business is e-commerce parent.
Additionally to the exchange processes done with stationary desktop computers there is a new 'mobile' way to do these transactions with information and communication networks. The term mobility derives from the latin word 'mobilitas'. The meaning of this term is translated with terms like agility or flexibility Reichwald, , 7.
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Mobility refers to specific context of action or object relationships, the change between places or positions in physical, geographical, social- or virtual spaces Wikipedia, In the context of mobile the object of mobility is information, which can be exchanged anywhere and anytime with the help of information- and communication technologies.
The informational mobility replaces the physical mobility the changing in time and place of persons or objects Reichwald, , 7. Wirtz defines mobile business with the same definition as e-business and adds as additional transmission tool the mobile device: mobile business is the initiation, support, execution and maintenance of performance transactions between economic entities by the means of electronic networks and mobile devices Wirtz, , Buse defines the concept of mobile business as ' [ Such services can reach from just information to content purchase or delivery and mobile banking up to mobile marketing and advertising.
Nicolai and Petersmann sum it up as they state, that if there is an action in electronic business performed by a mobile device on a cellular network it is mobile business. M-commerce has to be understood as an extension of e-commerce KPMG, , As learned in the classification of mobile devices, there are some main characteristics, which differentiate them from non-mobile devices. The following explains the topic mobile characteristics a bit further. By the key issue of mobility, there is added value, which is much more than just a technological value Wirtz, , There is no agreement on the characteristics of mobile economy and with different focus areas in literature.
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These characteristics consist off Internet and specific mobile ones Reichwald, , 9. Table 1 shows an overview of specifics in literature.
There is an agreement on ubiquity, reachability, context sensivity, personalization and proactive functionality and interactivity. Ubiquity is the independence of location, which means that the user of a device is not bound to a certain place e. For example a consumer on his way to a meeting is waiting for his flight. With his mobile device he is able to retrieve and edit business documents or can perform a price comparison for a new product he just saw on an advertising screen.
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The feature of ubiquity enables the use of a device in various environmental situations. Information about the situation, the position and the time constitute the context of the usage. The user himself, the mobile device i. In this context ambient intelligence technology becomes relevant. The main task is to recognize the context in which there are working. Smartphone can harness ambient data by different sensors such as temperature, location, user movements, schedule, user habits and engagement Karr, The processing of all context information results in a user profile, that allows adaptation of a mobile offering, which results in a better solution for the user in that specific situation Weil, , According to Zobel , 51 there are different types of context to which mobile offerings can refer:.
Local context. The simplest kind of context detection is determination of user's location. The so-called "radio cell method" determines the position by query on which mobile radio mast the mobile device is logged at that current time. The inclusion of multiple masts and their geographical location can narrow down the determination of location to about hundred meters. Modern smartphones are web-enabled and beyond that are equipped with a GPS module.
If these conditions are met, the location of the device can often be narrowed down up to several meters Weil, , WLANs range indoors depending on the walls up to 38 m, outdoors up to m. But it becomes more and more a synonym for WLAN. Localization is only possible if the user has switched on the localization functionality on his mobile phone. By the possibility of getting the exact position of a mobile phone, Location based services LBS can be offered and adapted to the actual position Hippel, , They are able to approach the customer with e.
Action-related context. By connection of user's actual position and detailed geodata information it is possible to guess certain activities the user is doing Zobel, , For example with detecting a rapidly changing position of a mobile phone it can be guessed, that the user is on a motorway and in a car. He probably is interested in the latest traffic reports for this highway or the location of next petrol station. A slow moving position in a shopping mall could lead to a guess, that the person is shopping and is probably interested in special offers of the shops close to him Weil, , Time-specific context.
With information about the time and the position it can be conclude that i. A mobile text message could offer time specific information like actual events near user's location starting at in one hour. Context of special interest.
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For example if customer's preference is cinema, the service could guess, that the user is in the cinema and offer him information where to take a drink afterwards at close quarters. Personalization is the strategy of establishing an individualized approach to servicing customers through products and services. Mobile phones use an electronic chip called subscriber identity module SIM. The SIM is registered with the network operator. The more personalized a service or a product is, the higher can be the added value for the customer. A company is able to build up a relation to the customer Hippel, , This is possible by the pro-active functionality of mobile technologies.
Since the introduction of GPRS and until today further developed new data communication technologies like 3G or LTE network technologies, it is possible for a sender of mobile messages to offer pro-active services Heinemann, , Before GPRS only phone calls or short messages services SMS could be pushed to the receiver, data-packets or emails had to be pulled by the receiver see also permission marketing 3. With mobile pro-active features dialog and interactive communication are possible between retailer and customer or customers with each other Weil, , Figurine 6 visualizes the five key features from the viewpoint of the author.
In reality, however, these characteristics are not fully redeemable, because of technical limitations, legal framework and acceptance problems. But with the evolution in technology, legal frameworks and the emergence of a broader acceptance, these features get retailers and customers closer together than ever before. Mobile Marketing or m-marketing is able all the above characteristics in its measures, which makes them more powerful than other marketing instruments before. M-marketing is considered as a part of the broader term mobile commerce Wikipedia, Mobile services are tools of m-marketing.
This shows that the key points of m-marketing are communication and information processes and not transaction processes. The classic actions of marketing are carried out by the use of mobile devices, which allow m-marketing a direct and personal approach of individuals by above explained features of m-business Wirtz, , They allow direct addressing of many persons one-to-many marketing , of a few persons one-to-few- marketing and especially to directly address an individual person one-to-one- or direct marketing Bauer, , Mobile direct marketing is the initiation and maintenance of a direct and personalized interaction with the customer with mobile devices to strengthen customer retention Wirtz, , Table 1 shows the differences between classical marketing, direct marketing and mobile marketing.
Table 2: Comparison classical marketing, direct marketing and mobile marketing cf.https://ufykuzutohev.tk
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Because of privacy legal reasons in electronically communication it is not allowed to send unwanted information to directly approach a person without prior permission. Therefore companies use relationship-oriented permission marketing, which is a permission-based sending of marketing messages. By this, the consumer explicitly gives permission and thus agrees in receiving company's message. The permission is given by 'opt-in'. At this it is differentiated between 'single opt-in' i. After that procedure the afterwards received information is assumed to be wanted and relevant to the customer and therefore is often seen as additional service of the sender to the customer.
The risk of reactance behaviour is reduced; trust is build up and is able to deepen the relationship Bruhn, a, Push communication is a one-sided communication, which is a classical sender and receiver model. It is like broadcasting information: The sender sends or 'pushes' its message to the receiver's mobile device i. Examples are messages with time critical content like stock price information, sales recommendations or simple mobile advertising messages. If using push-communication the consumer has to easily perceive the added value for him.
Pull communication is a two-sided one and fulfills amongst others interactive functions. In this case the sender provides information i. The customer has to actively ask for the information to be sent and is therefore able to decide whether to use or not to use such service Bruhn, , An example is the download of the latest mobile coupons from retailers mobile website by the customer.
The mobile phone allows the receiver of a message to immediately react on a message. By this a customer and a company exchange information, which are relevant for both.
The main difference of both communication modes lies in the timely influence of customer's assimilation of information. Humalog u manufacturer coupon. Whitewater marietta ga coupons. Sky zone coupons pittston pa.